## Math-Linux.com

Knowledge base dedicated to Linux and applied mathematics.

Home > Latex > FAQ > Latex - FAQ > Latex orthogonal symbol - Latex perpendicular symbol

# Latex orthogonal symbol - Latex perpendicular symbol

How to make the orthogonal symbol in LaTeX ?
How to make the perpendicular symbol in LaTeX ?
Here are some examples using the \perp command.

## Orthogonality of two vectors: orthogonal symbol in Latex

Let $u$ and $v$ be two vectors, to express that $u$ and $v$ are orthogonal, we can write :


\begin{equation}
u \perp v
\end{equation}



$$\begin{equation} u \perp v \end{equation}$$

## Orthogonality of a line and a vector: orthogonal symbol in Latex

Let $w$ be a vector and $d$ a line, to express that $w$ is orthogonal to $d$, we can write :


\begin{equation}
w \perp \bar{d}
\end{equation}



$$\begin{equation} w \perp \bar{d} \end{equation}$$

## Orthogonality in the Hilbert sense: orthogonal symbol in Latex

In addition to the previous cases, it is also possible to express orthogonality in the Hilbert sense. Given two vectors $x$ and $y$, to express that $x$ and $y$ are orthogonal in the Hilbert sense, we can write the scalar product :


\begin{equation}
\langle x, y \rangle = 0
\end{equation}



$$\begin{equation} \langle x, y \rangle = 0 \end{equation}$$

where $\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle$ represents the scalar product of two vectors.